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Hydrofluoric acid (CAS#7664-39-3) is the aqueous form of hydrogen fluoride gas, miscible with water. No calcium gluconate gel was applied to the affected area and contaminated clothing was not removed during the flushing with water. Deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns involving as little as 2.5% Body Surface Area (BSA), an area roughly the size of your hand is sufficient to cause death. Deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns involving as little as 2.5% Body Surface Area (BSA), an area roughly the size of your hand is sufficient to cause death. x�\�nˑ��W�f� ���wϬd��1��„��f!�&{,���R�^��ĉ�s2�A��-�T�q�Y�\�R���t����t�Zl��j��6�]So�3�X/��?�ׇ���i�_���}���+{�滣@���M��n;[ֳ��&�l������O��/��lg�ٺ����e�����֋M}�����f:3�/o�ԓ�_�x=y��������߯w�ꋦ�ΫI}m�>�̋��o�_[�3.�������}������i؜�f�����o�v�{~�~�H�� �����?\ֿTX��~�8�G�q����B�鬢8����1v�RH���I�b��R��8~� �w͵��+��d���zr>�82��T�D59`�e�.W���y���C�����s�\M�� Calcium chloride or gluconate was noted to have been administered to The risks. Inhalation of HF produces an immediate injury to the lining of the lungs with hemorrhage pulmonary edema and death. On 30th October 1987, a crane carrying a 50 foot section of a convection heater dropped its load onto an anhydrous hydrogen fluoride tank within the HF alkylation unit, shearing two lines leading to the top of the tank. ��&"� Head, Undergraduate Information: Dr. Beatriz Cisneros, Chemistry Advisor, An equal access/equal opportunity university. The working height of the fume cupboard was too low (by between II 0 and 160mm) for the technician to work comfortably in a standing position. Concentrated HF burns can be fatal if only 2% of the body surface area is exposed. '�d�5�2�7ȚB�jO�%�\��W$9�-+(;d-$Q� ����rit�|v�. Torrance!Refinery!ActionAlliance! An ergonomic assessment of the work station indicated the following: The laboratory personnel could have minimised the likelihood of a spill through the introduction of cup supports for the digestion cups. �PR�jO�46C'W�j��H���-x����hq��9^ۻs��V`�3�!1�{�� W#�ح]M�&FS�M��$����]-�� �r��2�;�?��F�YO#w����A���'�>�tǰ��Vn��U�.�?�s�E>)PH�q�ŝjҶ!�y2�ijѡI���L���&�''��BEz���l��G������h�>��f�;��xu��z���2J�z�_������E>$�8�)���,�Cm�qa�(��/��R\�k^��*LH�(��k� Aqueous hydrofluoric acid is a contact-poison with the potential for deep, initially painless burns and ensuing tissue death. Thicker (10-20 mil) PVC or neoprene gloves provide better resistance but do not provide the necessary dexterity for many lab procedures. Fume hood must be used for all HF work. HF can penetrate the skin extremely easily and decalcifies bones leading to tissue necrosis, which may result in amputation and death. Refinery Explosions Raise New Warnings About Deadly Chemical Chemical experts say recent refinery explosions could have been far more devastating if deadly hydrogen fluoride was released. HF is a chemical component in car and truck wash products, such as rust removers, aluminum brighteners, and wash formulations, because it is inexpensive and highly effective. HF Acid Attacking Bone matter. Even small splashes of high-concentration hydrogen fluoride products on the skin can be fatal. Instability of the digestion cups due to lightweight construction (height 75mm, diameter of base 59mm, diameter at top 78mm), made of 2mm polyethylene. Hydrofluoric acid causes painful tissue inflammation and necrosis on contact. It may have a commercial name like ‘Rustoff’ or ‘Aluminium brightener’ - so read the labels and safety data sheet (SDS). The only personal protective equipment worn was two pairs of wrist length rubber gloves and a pair of polyvinyl chloride sleeve protectors. Aims Prognostic impacts of serum uric acid (UA) levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) remain inconclusive, especially for the whole range of serum UA levels. info@safetorrancerefinery.org! His condition continued to deteriorate despite, subcutaneous injections of calcium gluconate and administration of intravenous calcium and magnesium. 4 0 obj FACTS Online chemical incident safety database. Exposure usually is unintentional and often is due to inadequate use of protective measures. The exposure to this chemical can occur in several different mechanisms from dermal, ocular, inhalation, and oral routes into the body. This acid is used to make fluorine-containing drugs, including Teflon and fluorine gas. Breathing in hydrogen fluoride at high levels or in combination with skin contact can cause death from an irregular heartbeat or from fluid buildup in the lungs. It has a molecular weight of 20.01 and can typically be found in concentrations of 48-52% in water. Wrong. 2. Supervisors must ensure the availability of protective equipment and the antidote, calcium gluconate cream at the work site. Sitting increased the body surface area. To subscribe : Contact Martin Larmour at M.Larmour@Kingston.ac.uk, Director, Health, Safety and Environment Office, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (765) 494-4600, Department of Chemistry, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2084 | Telephone: (765) 494-5200 | Fax: (765) 494-0239, © 2020 Purdue University | An equal access/equal opportunity university | Copyright Complaints | Maintained by Science IT. Users must observe all safety precautions including implementation of safety control measures and the use of proper personal protective equipment. HF is similar to other acids in that the initial extent of a burn depends on the concentration, the temperature, and the duration of contact with the acid. Two products contained ammonium bifluoride (NH 4 HF 2 , CAS no. %PDF-1.3 30th October 1987 Accident summary. �d��|>��k��x���|1#_���+��h�.g��vQM0���`l�Ʒ��(�@1)�ҩ�#�R� �߱?JOD�} ��R){#�n��z��K �ˡh1}5qD�~��=r��.��#`{3|�N��!O�"s���g>+|�u� jm9��מ`Ewh�I����ĜYCZ9���,8 _�qXo(�H�$���j"No��� Wu*��Ƀ��t��I�4+�ŷDN�`�Yv"ZMZ��TzQ �)m�$Ts���w����bD�C����O?�����]� 4�l>:c���Ʈ����O�VU��f�Ϫ�e�a �b BX�H����3��_�3�Q�R"u�^2,j�(')r��S�R�̖�D�J|�N��\��#Yr�Ě��-��*y| �Av| �^{�($�ʳ(����J Safety shower and emergency eyewash must be available in or near the lab. DO NOT confuse hydrofluoric acid with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Wanneer waterstoffluoride in water oplost wordt de oplossing fluorzuur genoemd.. The deceased did not have access to an emergency shower to remove the HF, instead the skin was washed from a hose that provided water at a very low flow rate. Hydrofluoric acid also may be found in home rust removers. In addition to the strongly corrosive hydrogen ions, HF generates fluoride ions which can readily penetrate skin and tissue, and result in necrosis of subcutaneous tissue. Systemic hypocalcemia should be considered a risk whenever the body surface area of skin burns from concentrated HF exceed 25 in2 (160 cm2), or about the size of the palm of your hand. The toxicity of HF and HCl are very different. Elemental fluorine is produced from it. Since 1962, only two papers7,8 have been published describing fatal poisonings following the ingestion of HE The MANOGUERRA AND NEUMAN 0 HYDROFLUORIC ACID POISONING most recent paper, published in 1984 by Menchel and Dunn,7 reported six cases since 1956 of HF ingestion that resulted in death in Dade County Florida. Suitable gloves include those made with PVC and neoprene. It has been estimated that death due to HF poisoning can occur if as little as 2.5% of the body comes into contact with concentrated acid (the palm of the hand represents approximately 1% of body surface area). If the penetration is sufficiently deep, decalcification of the bones may result. Sensitive viewers beware images of HF acid burn damage to hand and legs. However, HF is not only a strong corrosive, but also highly toxic towards higher concentra- tions: Local effects include tissue destruction and necrosis, deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns to as little as 2.5 % body surface area. Although a weak acid, i.e., it is not strongly disassociated, is used to etch glass. Even so, it's probably the most dangerous acid in this list because it's the one you're most likely to encounter. The technician involved was believed to be seated when he knocked over a small quantity (between 100 - 230ml) of hydrofluoric acid (HF) onto his lap, splashing both thighs. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid is a contact-poison with the potential for deep, initially painless burns and ensuing tissue death. Acid resistant apron 4. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns are serious, and it's important to seek medical attention immediately after a burn even if you don't feel symptoms. Symptoms of HF exposure. Exposure usually is unintentional and often is due to inadequate use of protective measures. 40, No. Hydrofluoric Acid . 23,24 HF binds with calcium whenever the acid comes in contact with skin or other tissues. Hydrofluoric acid or HF is an extremely corrosive acid. Do not let the classification as a weak acid fool you, HF is a very aggressive and dangerous acid. Because of the low flow rate, the volume of water may have spread the HF onto other parts of the skin. TqlaBt�j\Ii��#����/�lbѪ"d�\�h?u��^�TlTlh:c+�N��&I))��Z!u�jr���7�էƅ��㭠��bua3,�.����a�up��X_6�@��́ŢW&`s��!o��TY�:m^K�\��bצO2y�Ե��uGѿi�\��(����/V�;U�[z�Xȕk��A,Eh�3�������C1��H�3�{?�� 6�8J�}N16�� �=�;��~�%נr���>#|���*9;j�TQ�E��əWz��rHt�,�0J��@̢��ݘE�gƝ��FK�&����,K$+;�i�,�#nu�ϡ�D2� �� 6, pp 705-710, 1996. Hydrofluoric+AcidIncidents!in#Torrance#&#Elsewhere1" Apartial"chronology"! Ingestion: May be fatal if swallowed. The technician sustained burns to 9% of his body surface area, despite washing his legs with water from a makeshift plumbing arrangement that supplied water at 6 litres/min. A fatal accident occurred in a palynological laboratory in Australia, resulting in the death of a technician. 1. Depending on the concentration, exposure to HF can cause death. Taken from http://www.ab.ust.hk/hseo/tips/ch/ch005.htm. Disclaimer: Answer contains graphic images. Lack of available space in the fume cupboard, entrance of the fume cupboard was 470mm wide and 410 mm high. Selection of specific PPE depends on nature of the operation and the quantity of HF involved. Hydrofluoric (HF) acid, one of the strongest inorganic acids, is used mainly for industrial purposes (eg, glass etching, metal cleaning, electronics manufacturing). If concentrated HF vapours are inhaled then death can occur very quickly. Chronic exposure to low level of HF vapor may irritate respiratory system and cause problem to the bones. Hydrofluoric acid is extremely corrosive! Thus, hydrogen fluoride (HF) is produced in two forms, as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (the gaseous form, HF(g)) and as aqueous hydrofluoric acid (the aqueous solution form, HF(aq)). Thus, hydrogen fluoride (HF) is produced in two forms, as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (the gaseous form, HF(g)) and as aqueous hydrofluoric acid (the aqueous solution form, HF(aq)). It is commonly used to etch glass and silicon wafers. 65�LZS�����q ����=GÖD����G�\]"�lB+�c�|F�c��@ Is a colourless solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water, it is one of the most dangerous acids known, and has been responsible for a significant number of deaths and life changing injuries around the world. Gloves: Thin disposable gloves (such as 4, 6, or 8 mil blue nitrile gloves) used in laboratory operations provide a contact barrier only and should be disposed immediately when contamination is suspected. As a result of the design of the container, decanting from the 2-1 hydrofluoric acid container was awkward, involving the pronation of the forearm. Therefore, it must be handled with extreme caution. \{��5��n���V�D��u=曑*�Sx��ا�nn�%��,̀�ET|I��)��ge�H�Ø@�R0� ��!9�nZ(MЪb����&*��s��(x`��������`����Q���2+�� Xs(8�q��_T�G�X�) Hydrofluoric acid vapors are also an inhalation hazard and can cause ocular irritation. Hydrofluoric acid also may be found in home rust removers. SallyHayati,!October!7,2015! It is used to make most fluorine-containing compounds; examples include the commonly used pharmaceutical antidepressant medication fluoxetine (Prozac) and the material PTFE (Teflon). 1 Deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns (involving ≥ 50% HF solutions) to as little as 2.5% of body surface area, which is equivalent to approximately one hand and forearm. ��W@�fT>���W��*T�+�H8�'zў���S��o��s母֬{Dx]�U-V�ǘ�W��-;ۭ^ЌO����&���BO��GcoNO�'IJ�#A*f�����Jx�u�@�Q�${m���G��1�Ьr$s�PY`7��]����Zِqc1�uD VҮ�~��d��{��_��ݫ�F�q�&M��i�(3 Radiological and Environmental Management, Graduate Admissions: Dr. Stephen Hoffmann, Assistant Dept. HF may be known as Hydrogen fluoride (UN 1052), hydrofluoric acid (UN 1790) or fluorohydric acid. Hydrogen fluoride gas, even at low levels, can irritate the eyes, nose, and respiratory tract. Quality: * * * Year: 1984: Country: USA: Activity: PROCESSING: Location: CHEMICAL FACTORY Thanks to the big screen, many of us think of acids as dangerous, burn-through-anything substances. glass etching, brick cleaning, microchip etching, electroplating, and leather tanning) and even as an active ingredient in several household chemicals such as rust remover, aluminum brighteners, and heavy-du… Chronic exposure to low level of HF vapor may irritate respiratory system and cause problem to the bones. Concentrated HF (70%) will fume on contact with air. This article looks at the factors that may have contributed to its occurrence. Background Case reports have identified hydrofluoric acid (HF) as causing fatal work injury, and HF has both local and systemic toxicity. Investigation showed that this death could have been prevented if adequate personal protective equipment had been worn during the handling of concentrated hydrofluoric acid. In some regions of the country the levels of fluoride in the water are too high and this causes mottling of the teeth and loss of calcium from the bones. Aqueous solutions dilute as 0.1 M will pH at approximately 1.0. Waterstoffluoride, fluorwaterstofzuur of vloeizuur is een zeer corrosief zuur met als brutoformule HF. Full length PVC coveralls with sleeves to the wrist or a full-length PVC apron with sleeve protectors, a face shield, rubber boots, safety goggles and mid-arm length PVC gloves should have been worn by the deceased when HF was being used in the fume cupboard. Hydrofluoric Acid . Special training, preparation, personal Supervisors must ensure all staff and students working with HF are aware of this hazard and are adequately trained to handle, use and dispose of this material safely. Identification numbers are CAS number 7664-39-3, UN: 1052 or RTECS: MW7875000. potassium levels), hypomagnesemia (low magnesium levels), and sudden death. PURPOSE Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is an extremely dangerous chemical, and can cause death from a skin exposure of less than 3% of body area. Concentrated HF burns can be fatal if only 2% of the body surface area is exposed. Dit heeft te maken met het feit dat HF-moleculen waterstofbruggen vormen, waardoor ze in lange ketens aan elkaar geregen worden. polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). 1. Hydrofluoric Acid HF: With a pKa of 3.15 HF is considered a weak acid in that it is not full disassociated below a pH of about 5.5 and will form complexes with many compounds including itself. Skin Exposure: Strong HF acid concentrations (over 50%) and anhydrous HF in particular, cause immediate, severe, burning pain and a whitish discoloration of the skin that usually proceeds to blister formation.The usual initial signs of a dilute solution HF burn are redness, swelling and blistering, accompanied by severe throbbing pain. The pKa of HF is 3.2, allowing it to readily cross cell membrane barriers, es- pecially in the acidic conditions of the stomach. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H F.This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid.It is an important feedstock in the preparation of many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers, e.g. Stealth Acid Damage. Unlike other acids which can be rapidly neutralized, the neutralization of HF may proceed for days during which tissue destruction may continue. Hydrofluoric acid is a caustic chemical that is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage to tissues, such as burning, on contact. It has a molecular weight of 20.01 and can typically be found in concentrations of 48-52% in water. We dunk a glowing lightbulb in HF - an acid famed for being disagreeable with glass. Sensitive viewers beware images of HF acid burn damage to hand and legs. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing, breathing in, or touching hydrofluoric acid. Of course the vast majority of acids are much more boring. If the penetration is sufficiently deep, decalcification of the bones may result. 23 Because calcium is required for cell life, fluoride’s calcium-binding capacity may result in rapid cell death. Vinegar (which contains ethanoic acid) and citric acid (found in, guess what, citrus fruits)… Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes chemical burns and is a serious systemic poison by all routes of exposure. , please contact ScienceIT at sciencehelp @ purdue.edu fumes, leading to death. From dermal, ocular, inhalation, and sudden death have spread the HF onto parts! Showed that this death could have been administered to Disclaimer: Answer graphic! Very quickly home rust removers i.e., it reacts with water forms hydrofluoric acid is a very aggressive dangerous. 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